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Kristen Hawkes

Kristen HawkesDistinguished Professor, Anthropology Department, University of Utah
Phone: 801/581-6251

Curriculum Vitae


Current Courses

Fall 2015

  • Behavioral Ecol/Anthro, ANTH 4461-001, Location: ST 215 (William Stewart Bldg). (Student Feedback)
  • Undergraduate Research, ANTH 4950-009
  • Behavioral Ecol/Anthro, ANTH 6461-001, Location: ST 215 (William Stewart Bldg).
  • Pblms In Evol Anthro, ANTH 6498-001, Location: ST 103B (William Stewart Bldg).
  • Individual Study, ANTH 6950-009
  • Thesis Research-Masters, ANTH 6970-010
  • Faculty Consultation, ANTH 6980-010
  • Individual Research, ANTH 7910-010
  • Guided Reading, ANTH 7920-010
  • Thesis Research-PhD, ANTH 7970-010
  • Faculty Consultation, ANTH 7980-010
  • Behavioral Ecol/Anthro, ENVST 4461-001, Location: ST 215 (William Stewart Bldg).

Summer 2015

  • Undergraduate Research, ANTH 4950-018
  • Faculty Consultation, ANTH 7980-005

Spring 2015

  • Undergraduate Research, ANTH 4950-009, Location: ( ).
  • Proseminar in Anthr IV, ANTH 6400-001, Location: ST 103B (William Stewart Bldg). (Student Feedback)
  • Pblms In Evol Anthro, ANTH 6498-001, Location: ST 103B (William Stewart Bldg).
  • Individual Study, ANTH 6950-009, Location: ( ).
  • Thesis Research-Masters, ANTH 6970-009, Location: ( ).
  • Faculty Consultation, ANTH 6980-009, Location: ( ).
  • Individual Research, ANTH 7910-009, Location: ( ).
  • Guided Reading, ANTH 7920-009, Location: ( ).
  • Thesis Research-PhD, ANTH 7970-009
  • Thesis Research-PhD, ANTH 7970-012
  • Faculty Consultation, ANTH 7980-009, Location: ( ).


Research Summary

I'm working on human life history evolution guided by the hypothesis that grandmothering is a fundamental shift in our genus underlying a suite of features that distinguish humans from other great apes. Current efforts include 1) collaborations in mathematical modeling and 2) data collection to improve estimates of ovarian and somatic aging in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees. I continue to attend to hunter-gatherer behavioral ecology.

Research Statement

I continue to try to leverage observations of foraging and social strategies among hunter-gatherers to help explain what happened in human evolution. For example, two current collaborative projects are 1) modeling life history evolution in our lineage and 2) measuring aspects of aging in captive chimpanzees. Both build on previous work on life history evolution that began with ethnographic findings in two large field projects studying the behavioral ecology of hunter-gatherer populations, one the Ache of eastern Paraguay and the other the Hadza of northern Tanzania. Results of our systematic quantitative observations suggested that, contrary to long-standing expectations, men's hunting was aimed more at status competition than at provisioning mates and offspring. Grandmothers played the key role in providing for youngsters when the mothers of those youngsters bore their next baby. These findings, combined with theory about mammalian life history evolution, indicated that the provisioning role played by grandmothers might explain the evolution of human longevity. That grandmother hypothesis highlights key differences in life history between people and our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, including the substantially greater longevity in humans - even though female fertility ends at about the same age in both species - and the strongly male biased sex ratio in the fertile ages that is a distinctive feature of human populations. Mathematical modeling confirms the plausible role of helpful grandmothering and its consequences for male biased sex ratios. Each likely had profound effects on the fevolution of human social behavior. I continue both the modeling collaborations and also data collection and analysis aimed at improving quantitative measures of aging in captive chimpanzees for comparison with measures made on people.

Research Keywords

  • primate life history, Interest Level: 5
  • longevity, senescence, follicular atresia, menopause, DHEAS, Interest Level: 5
  • foraging strategies, food sharing, status competition, Interest Level: 5


Search my publications on PubMed or USpace.

  • Cloutier TC, JE Coxworth & K Hawkes 2015 Age-related decline in ovarian follicle stocks differ between chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans. Age 37:1-9. Published, 02/2015.
  • Hawkes K, JF O’Connell, & NG Blurton Jones. 2014 More lessons from the Hadza about men’s work. Hum Nat 25(4): 596-619. DOI 10.1007/s12110-014-9212-5. Published, 09/2014.
  • Kim PS, McQueen JS, Coxworth JE & Hawkes K. 2014. Grandmothering drives the evolution of longevity in a probabilistic model. Journal of Theoretical Biology 353:84-94. Published, 06/2014.
  • Herzog NM, CH Parker, ER Keefe, JE Coxworth, A Barrett & K Hawkes 2014 Fire and home range expansion: A behavioral response to burning among savannah dwelling vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). Am J Phys Anth 154 (4): 554–560. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22550. Published, 06/2014.
  • Parker CR, WE Grizzle, JK Blevins & K Hawkes 2014. Development of adrenal cortical zonation and expression of key elements of adrenal androgen production in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) from birth to adulthood. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 387: 35–43. Published, 04/2014.
  • Tackney J, Cawthon RM, Coxworth JE & K Hawkes 2014. Blood cell telomere lengths and shortening rates of chimpanzee and human females. Am J Hum Biol 26:452–460. Published, 03/2014.
  • Hawkes K & Coxworth JE 2013 Grandmothers and the evolution of human longevity: A Review of findings and future directions. Evolutionary Anthropology 22(6):294–302. Published, 11/2013.
  • Blevins JK, Coxworth JE, Herndon JG & Hawkes K. 2013 Brief communication: Adrenal androgens and aging: Female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) compared with women. Am J Phys Anthropol 151 (4):643-8. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22300. Published, 08/2013.
  • Kim PS, JE Coxworth & K Hawkes. 2012. Increased longevity evolves from grandmothering. Proc Roy Soc B 279: 4880–4884 published online 24 October 2012 doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.1751. Chosen by the Faculty of 1000 Published, 10/24/2012.
  • Hawkes K. 2012 Grandmothers and their consequences. Contribution to Calcano & Fuentes, What makes us Human? Answers from evolutionary anthropology. Evol Anthropol 21(5):189. Published, 10/2012.
  • Hawkes K. 2012 Stag hunts or rearing environments? comment on M Tomasello et al. Two key steps in the evolution of human cooperation: The interdependence hypothesis. Curr Anthropol 53(6):687-88. Published, 01/11/2012.
  • Hawkes K, KR Smith & JK Blevins. 2011 Human actuarial aging increases faster when background death rates are lower: a role for heterogeneity? Evolution 66(1):103-14. Published, 08/2011.
  • Hawkes K, P Kim, B Kennedy, R Bohlender, J Hawkes 2011 A reappraisal of grandmothering and natural selection. Proc. R. Soc. B 278:1936-1938. Published, 04/06/2011. ml#ref-list-1
  • Hawkes K, Smith KR 2010 Do women stop early? similarities in fertility decline between humans and chimpanzees. Ann NY Acad Sci 1204:43-53. Published, 08/2010.
  • Hawkes, K. 2010 Der Großmutter-Effekt, In Evolution und Kultur des Menschen, edited and translated by EP Fischer und Klaus Wiegandt, pp 170-196. Frankfurt: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag.Invited talk, not keynote. Written version submitted June 2009 to be published in German. Published, 07/2010.
  • O’Connell, JF, J Allen & K Hawkes.2010 Modeling Sahul colonization: Implications for the origins of seafaring. In The Global Origins and Development of Seafaring, edited by A. Anderson, J. Barrett, and K. Boyle. Pp 57-68. Cambridge: The McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge University. Published, 06/2010.
  • Coxworth JE & Hawkes K 2010. Ovarian follicle loss in humans and mice: Lessons from statistical modeling comparison. Human Reproduction 25(7):1296-1805. Published, 05/2010.
    Hawkes, K. 2010. Grandmother effects, heterogeneity, and the evolution of human aging: Guidance from human-chimpanzee comparisons. Proc Nat Acad Sci (USA) 107 (Supplement 2): 8977-8984. Published, 04/2010.
  • Hawkes, K, JF O’Connell & JE Coxworth. 2010 Family Provisioning is not the only reason men hunt. Current Anthropology. 52(2):259-264. Published, 02/2010.
  • Hawkes, K & KR Smith. 2009 Evaluating grandmother effects. Am J Phys Anthropol 140: 173-176. Published, 09/2009.
  • Hawkes, K, KR Smith, & SL Robson. 2009 Mortality and fertility rates in humans and chimpanzees: how within-species variation complicates Cross-species comparisons. Am J Hum Biol. 21:578–586. Published, 06/2009.
  • Hawkes, K & SL Robson. Primate comparisons, grandmothers, and the evolution of human Longevity. In Exceptional Longevity, edited by Thomas Perls. Johns Hopkins University Press.Chapter for this project initially submitted in 2006. Project apparently languished then revived and chapter extensively revised & updated in 2009 . Pending, 2009.
  • Hawkes, K. Review of Mothers and Others: The evolution of human understanding, by Sarah Blaffer Hrdy (2009 Belknap; Harvard) Evolutionary Anthropology 18:228-229. Published, 2009.
    Jones KP, LC Walker, D Anderson, A Lacreuse, SL Robson, K Hawkes. 2007. Depeltion of ovarian follicles with age in chimpanzees: Similarities to humans. Biology of Reproduction 77:247-251. Published, 05/2007.
  • Slow life histories and human evolution. In The Evolution of Human Life History. Kristen Hawkes and Richard Paine, eds. Santa Fe and Oxford, SAR Press, 95-126. Published, 10/2006.
  • Robson SL, van Schaik CP, Hawkes K. The derived features of human life history. In The Evolution of Human Life History. K. Hawkes and R Paine, eds, Santa Fe and Oxford, SAR Press. Accepted, 08/05/2006.
  • Hawkes K & RR Paine. 2006. The Evolution of Human Life History. School of American Research Press: Santa Fe. Published, 07/2006.
    Life history theory and human evolution. In The Evolution of Human Life History. Kristen Hawkes and Richard Paine, eds. Santa Fe and Oxford, SAR Press, 45-93. Published, 06/2006.
  • Hawkes K & NG Blurton Jones 2005 Human age structures, paleodemography, and the Grandmother Hypothesis. In Grandmotherhood: The Evolutionary Significance of the Second Half of Female Life, edited by E. Voland, A. Chasiotis, and W. Schiefenhovel, pp. 118-140. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press (corrected from the published version). Published, 06/2005.
  • Hawkes, K. J. F. O'Connell & N. G. Blurton Jones 2003 Human life histories: Primate tradeoffs, grandmothering socioecology, and the fossil record. In Primate Life Histories & Socioecology, edited by P. Kappeler and M. Pereira, pp 204-227. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Published, 10/2003.
  • Hawkes K. 2003. Grandmothers and the evolution of human longevity. American Journal of Human Biology 15:380-400. Published, 06/2003.
  • O'Connell, J. F. K. Hawkes, K. Lupo and N. G. Blurton Jones. 2002. Male strategies and Plio-Pleistocene archaeology. Journal of Human Evolution 43:831-872. Published, 12/2002.
  • O'Connell, J. F. K. Hawkes and N. G. Blurton Jones 2002 Meat-eating, grandmothering and the evolution of early human diets. In Human Diet: Its Origin and Evolution, edited by P. Unger & M. Teaford, pp. 49-60. Westport, Conn.: Bergin & Garvey. Published, 10/2002.
  • Showing off, handicap signaling, and the evolution of men's work. Evolutionary Anthropology 11:58-67. Published, 07/2002.
  • Blurton Jones, N. Kristen Hawkes and James F. O'Connell. 2002 Antiquity of postreproductive life: Are there modern impacts on hunter-gatherer postreproductive life spans? American Journal of Human Biology 14:184-205. Published, 06/2002.
  • Hawkes, K. 2001 Is meat the hunter's property? Ownership and explanations of hunting and sharing. In Meat-eating and Human Evolution, edited by C. Stanford and H. Bunn, pp. 219-236. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Released, 10/2001.
  • Hawkes, K. J. F. O'Connell and N. G. Blurton Jones 2001 Hadza meat sharing. Evolution and Human Behavior 22(2001):113-142. Published, 06/2001.
  • Hawkes, K. J. F. O'Connell and N.G. Blurton Jones. 2001. Hunting and nuclear families. Current Anthropology 42:5, pp. 681-709. Published, 05/2001.
  • Hawkes, K. J. F. O'Connell, N. G. Blurton Jones, H. Alvarez and E. L. Charnov 2000 The grandmother hypothesis and human evolution. In Adaptation and Human Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective, edited by L.
  • Cronk, N. Chagnon & W. Irons, pp. 231-252. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Published, 10/2000.
  • Hawkes, K. 2000. Big game hunting and the evolution of egalitarian societies: Lessons from the Hadza. In Hierarchies in Action: Cui Bono?, edited by M. Diehl. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Occasional Paper 27:59-83. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. Published, 09/2000.
  • Hawkes, K. J. F. O'Connell and N. G. Blurton Jones. 2000. Why do women have mid-life menopause? Grandmothering and the evolution of human longevity. In 10th Reinier de Graff Symposium: Female Reproductive Aging, edited by E. R. te Velde and F. J. Broekmans, pp. 27-42. New York: Pantheon. Published, 06/2000.
  • Blurton Jones, N. G. F. Marlowe, K. Hawkes and J. F. O'Connell. 2000. Hunter-gatherer divorce rates and the paternal provisioning theory of human monogamy. In Adaptation and Human Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective, edited by L. Cronk, N. Chagnon & W. Irons, pp. 65-84. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Published, 02/2000.
  • O'Connell, J. F. K. Hawkes, and N.G. Blurton Jones. 1999. Grandmothering and the evolution of Homo erectus. Journal of Human Evolution 36:461-485. Published, 05/1999.
  • Blurton Jones, N. G. K. Hawkes, and J. F. O'Connell. 1999. Some current ideas about the evolution of the human life history. In Comparative Primate Socioecology, edited by P. C. Lee, pp. 140-166. Cambridge University Press. Published, 02/1999.
  • Hawkes, K. J. F. O'Connell, N.G. Blurton Jones, H. Alvarez, and E.L. Charnov. 1998. Grandmothering, menopause, and the evolution of human life histories. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 95, pp. 1336-1339. Published, 08/1998.
  • Hawkes, K. J. F. O'Connell and L. Rogers. 1997. The behavioral ecology of modern hunter-gatherers and human evolution Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12:29-32. Published, 10/1997.
  • Hawkes K, O'Connell JF, Blurton Jones NG. 1997. Hadza women's time allocation, offspring provisioning and the evolution of long postmenopausal life spans. Current Anthropology 38:4, 551-577. Published, 09/1997.
  • Blurton Jones, N. G. K. Hawkes and J. F. O'Connell. 1997. Why do Hadza children forage? In Uniting Psychology and Biology: Integrative Perspectives on Human Development, edited by N. Segal, G. E. Weisfeld, and CC.
  • Weisfeld, pp 279-313. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. Published, 06/1997.
  • Hawkes K. 1996. Foraging differences between men and women: Behavioral ecology of the sexual division of labor. In Power, Sex and Tradition: The Archaeology of Human Ancestry, S. Shennan and J. Steele, eds. 283-305. London: Routledge. Published, 10/1996.
  • Behavioral ecology. In Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology. Edited by D. Levinson and M. Ember. Sponsored by the HRAF. Vol 1: 121- 125. Henry Holt Inc. Published, 08/1996.
    Hawkes K. 1996. The evolutionary basis of sex variations in the use of natural resources: Human examples. Population and Environment. 18:161-173. Published, 05/1996.
  • Blurton Jones, N. G. K. Hawkes and J. F. O'Connell. 1996. The global process and local ecology: How should we explain differences between the Hadza and the !Kung? In Cultural Diversity among Twentieth Century Foragers: An African Perspective, edited by S. Kent, pp. 159-187. Cambridge: CUP. Published, 02/1996.
  • Hawkes, K. A. R. Rogers and E. L. Charnov. 1995. The male's dilemma: increased offspring production is more paternity to steal . Evolutionary Ecology 9:662-677. Published, 06/1995.
  • Hawkes, K. J.F. O'Connell and N.G. Blurton Jones. 1995. Hadza children's foraging: Juvenile dependency, social arrangements and mobility among hunter-gatherers. Current Anthropology 36:4, 688-700. Published, 02/1995.
  • Blurton Jones, N.G. K. Hawkes and P. Draper. 1994. Differences between Hadza and !Kung children's work: Affluence of Practical Reason? In Key Issues in Hunter-Gatherer Research, E. S. Burch Jr and L. J. Ellanna eds, pp 189-215. Oxford: Berg. Published, 07/1994.
  • Blurton Jones, N.G. K. Hawkes and P. Draper. 1994. Foraging returns of !Kung adults and children: Why didn't !Kung children forage? Journal of Anthropological Research 50(3): 217-248). Published, 02/1994.!KungKidsDidntForage.pdf
  • Hawkes, K. 1994. On life history evolution (a comment on Chisholm). Current Anthropology 35(1):39-41. Published, 02/1994.
  • O'Connell, J.F. K. Hawkes and N.G. Blurton Jones. 1993. Patterns in the distribution, site structure, and assemblage composition of Hadza kill-butchering sites. Journal of Archaeological Science 19:319-345. Published, 10/1993.
  • Blurton Jones, N.G. L. Smith, K. Hawkes, J. O'Connell and C. Kamuzora. 1993. Demography of the Hadza, an increasing and high density population of savanna foragers. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 89:1159-1181. Published, 08/1993.
  • Hawkes K. 1993. Why hunter-gatherers work: An ancient version of the problem of public goods. Current Anthropology 34 (4):341-361. Published, 02/1993.
  • Hawkes K. 1993. On why male foragers hunt and share food: Reply to Hill and Kaplan. Current Anthropology 34(5):706-710. Published, 02/1993.
  • Hawkes, K. 1992. Sharing and collective action. In Ecology, Evolution , and Human Behavior, E.A. Smith and B. Winterhalder, eds. pp 269-300. Aldine de Gruyter. Published, 09/1992.
  • Hawkes, K. & J. F. O'Connell. 1992. On optimal foraging models and subsistence transitions. Current Anthropology 33(1): 63-66. Published, 05/1992.
  • Hawkes K. 1992. On sharing and work (a comment on Bird-David). Current Anthropology 33(4): 404-407. Published, 02/1992.
  • Vigilant, L. M. Stoneking, H. Harpending, K. Hawkes & A.C. Wilson. 1991. African populations and the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA. Science 253:1503-1507. Published, 10/1991.
  • O'Connell, J. F. K. Hawkes and N.G. Blurton Jones. 1991.Hunting income patterns among the Hadza: Big game, common goods, foraging goals and the evolution of the human diet. Philosophical Transactions:Biological Sciences 334(1270): 243-250. Also in: Foraging Strategies and Natural Diet of Monkey's, Apes, and Humans, edited by A. Whiten and M. Widdowson (1992), pp. 83-91. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Published, 08/1991.
  • O'Connell, J. F. K. Hawkes and N.G. Blurton Jones. 1991 Distribution of activities at Hadza base camps: Implications for analyses of archaeological site structure. In The Interpretation of Archaeological Spatial Patterning, edited by E.M. Kroll and T.D. Price, pp. 61-76. Plenum Press, New York. Published, 04/1991.
  • Showing off: Tests of an hypothesis about men's foraging goals. Ethology and Sociobiology 12:29-54. Published, 01/1991.
  • O'Connell, J. F. K. Hawkes and N. G. Blurton Jones. 1990. Reanalysis of large mammal body part transport among the Hadza. Journal of Archaeological Science 17:301-316. Published, 05/1990.
  • Hawkes K 1990. Why do men hunt? Some benefits for risky strategies. In Risk and Uncertainty in Tribal and Peasant Economies, edited by E. Cashdan, pp. 145-166. Boulder: Westview Press. Published, 02/1990.
  • Hawkes, K. J. F. O'Connell and N. G. Blurton Jones. 1989. Hardworking Hadza grandmothers. In Comparative Socioecology: The Behavioural Ecology of Humans and Other Mammals, edited by V. Standen & R.A. Foley, pp. 341-366. London: Basil Blackwell. Published, 06/1989.
  • Blurton Jones, N. G. K. Hawkes and J. F. O'Connell. 1989. Modelling and measuring the costs of children in two foraging societies. In Comparative Socioecology: The Behavioural Ecology of Humans and Other
  • Mammals, edited by V. Standen & R. Foley, pp. 367-390. London: Basil Blackwell. Published, 02/1989.
  • O'Connell, J. F. K. Hawkes and N. G. Blurton Jones. 1988. Hadza scavenging: Implications for Plio-Pleistocene hominid subsistence. Current Anthropology 29:356-363. Published, 07/1988.
  • O'Connell, J. F. K. Hawkes and N. G. Blurton Jones. 1988. Hadza hunting, butchering, and bone transport and their archaeological implications. Journal of Anthropological Research 44:113-61. Published, 03/1988.
  • Hawkes, K. & E. L. Charnov. 1988 Human fertility: Individual or group benefit? Current Anthropology 29(3):469-71. Published, 02/1988.
  • Hill, K. H. Kaplan, K. Hawkes and A. M. Hurtado. 1987. Foraging decisions among Ache hunter-gatherers: New data and implications for optimal foraging models. Ethology and Sociobiology 8:1-36. Published, 10/1987.
  • Hawkes, K. H. Kaplan, K. Hill and A. M. Hurtado. 1987. Ache at the settlement: Contrasts between farming and foraging. Human Ecology 15(2):133-161. Published, 08/1987.
  • Hawkes, K. K. Hill, H. Kaplan and A. M. Hurtado. 1987. A problem of bias in the ethnographic use of scan sampling. Journal of Anthropological Research 43(3):239-245. Published, 05/1987.
  • Hawkes K. 1987. How much food do foragers need? In Food and Evolution: Toward a Theory of Human Food Habits, edited by M. Harris & E. Ross, pp. 341-355. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Published, 01/1987.
  • Hurtado, A. M. K. Hawkes, K. Hill and H. Kaplan. 1985. Female subsistence strategies among the Ache of Eastern Paraguay. Human Ecology 13(1):1-28. Published, 09/1985.
  • Hill, K. H. Kaplan, K. Hawkes and A.M. Hurtado. 1985. Men's time allocation to subsistence work among the Ache of Eastern Paraguay. Human Ecology 13(1):29-47. Published, 06/1985.
  • Hawkes, K. J. F. O'Connell, K. Hill and E.L. Charnov. 1985. How much is enough? Hunters and limited needs. Ethology and Sociobiology 6:3-15. Published, 03/1985.
  • Hawkes, K. & J. F. O'Connell. 1985 Optimal foraging models and the case of the !Kung. American Anthropologist 87:401-405. Published, 01/1985.!KungAA.pdf
  • O'Connell, J. F. and K. Hawkes. 1984. Food choice and foraging sites among the Alyawara. Journal of Anthropological Research 40(4):504-535. Published, 10/1984.
  • Kaplan, H. K. Hill, K. Hawkes and A. M. Hurtado. 1984. Food sharing among Ache hunter-gatherers of Eastern Paraguay. Current Anthropology 25(1):113-115. Published, 08/1984.
  • Hill, K. K. Hawkes, A.M. Hurtado and H. Kaplan. 1984. Seasonal variance in the diet of Ache hunter-gatherers in Eastern Paraguay. Human Ecology 12:145-180. Published, 02/1984.
  • Hill, K. and K. Hawkes. 1983. Neotropical hunting among the Ache of Eastern Paraguay. In Adaptations of Native Amazonians, edited by R. Hames and W. Vickers, pp. 139-188. New York: Academic Press. Published, 04/1983.
  • Hawkes, K. K. Hill & J. F. O'Connell. 1982. Why hunters gather: Optimal foraging and the Ache of Eastern Paraguay. American Ethnologist 9:379-398. Published, 08/1982.
  • Hawkes K. 1982. Kin selection and culture. American Ethnologist 10:345-363. Published, 01/1982.
  • O'Connell, J. F. and K. Hawkes. 1981. Alyawara plant use and optimal foraging theory. In Hunter-Gatherer Foraging Strategies: Ethnographic and Archaeological Analysis, edited by B. Winterhalder and E.A. Smith, pp. 99-125. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. In Progress, 08/1981.
  • Hawkes K. 1981. A third explanation for female infanticide. Human Ecology 9:71-107. Published, 07/1981.
  • Hawkes K & JF O'Connell 1981. Affluent hunters? Some comments in light of the Alyawara case. American Anthropologist 83:622-626. Published, 02/1981.
  • Hawkes K. 1978. Cooperation in Binumarien: Evidence for Sahlins' Model. Man (N.S.) 12:459-483. Published, 08/1978.
  • Hawkes K. 1978. Another explanation for bifurcate generation kinship nomenclature: The Binumarien case. Journal of Anthropological Research 34(3):369-391. Published, 05/1978.
  • Hawkes K 1977. The assignment of relationship terms in Binumarien. Ethnology 16:309-329. Published, 09/1977.
  • Hage, P. and K. Hawkes. 1975. Binumarien color categories. Ethnology 14:287-300. Published, 06/1975.


  • Grandmothers & human childrearing. University Women’s Club, U of Utah Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 11/10/2014.
  • Grandmothers & human evolution. Tryon Lecture UC Berkeley Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 10/15/2014.
  • Grandmothers & the evolution of human sociality. Development Group. Psychology. UC Berkeley Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 10/13/2014.
  • Grandmothers’ consequences for human evolution? Biology Seminar Series. U of U Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 10/02/2014.
  • Grandmothers & the evolution of human longevity. Superhuman Radio. Other, Presented, 07/30/2014.
  • Grandmothers & the extended family. CARTA symposium: From Birth to Grandmotherhood: in human evolution. UCSD. San Diego Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 02/21/2014.
  • Grandmothers & human evolution. Margo Wilson Memorial Lecture. McMaster University. Hamilton Ontario Canada. October 3. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 10/03/2013.
  • Grandmothering and Human Evolution. Department of Ecology & Evolution. University of Tennesee. Knoxville TN, February 8. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 02/08/2013.


Last Updated: 11/28/16